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Preparing for the exam 2

 Preparing for the exam, I summarised and made comments on the classes in "Medical English" course this semester. The name of the lecturers are modified.

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Dr. M

50-60 words: summarize
 Dr. M introduced a thesis about the Vienna classification. Originally, there were differences in the terminology for gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia between Japan and the West. The thesis showed how pathologists form both sides discussed on this issue. Thus, the Vienna classification was made as a new standard to solve further confusion in the area of study.

80-100 words: + opinion
 Confusion of terms occurs not only in the world of medicine, but in any places. Words hold a variety of meanings, and different people have different interpretations of terms. Therefore, negotiation for the consensus of terminology is important in any aspects of social communication.

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Dr. K

50-60 words: summarize + opinion
 Dr. K introduced a thesis about Voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that is made to prevent type2 diabetes mellitus. Since I’m overweight in stature, the risk of diabetes is always on my mind. Therefore, learning about this medicine was an eye-opener, and I felt I should study more about it, so that one day, I might find it useful.

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Dr. U

50-60 words: summarize
 Dr. U talked about the importance and the clues to acquire English as a second language. He introduced listening, reading, speaking, and writing as the four elements of studying a new language. By using a news clip, an academic interview, and a thesis all concerning ALS as example, he demonstrated what should be the focus in obtaining each element.

80-100 words: + opinion
 He also suggested going abroad might be useful. In terms of second language acquisition, I completely agree to this opinion. I strongly believe that linguistic abilities are promoted best when used in communication.

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Kenya

50-60 words: summary
 Kenya receives great donations from developed nations, including Japan. However, the money and material seem not to reach the locus of where help is most needed. They seem to disappear into the darkness of corrupted bureaucracy. Therefore, the situation in the slum gets worse; children without parents lack education, and are suffering from poverty and poor sanitary conditions.

50-60 words: Japanese medical teams in developing nations such as Kenya
 The impact of malaria is substantially large in Kenya, but in my opinion, poor sanitary conditions due to poverty and lack of education deals greater damage to its people.
 Therefore, sending Japanese medical teams to developing nations such as Kenya might contribute more than medicine. Medical doctors with high education could help in areas such as education and social welfare.

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Medical English Presentation

20-30 words: successful aspect and why it was effective
 Since I have been practicing presentation skills using Microsoft power-point in the previous university, I think I made my presentation rather successfully.
 In my opinion, practice makes perfect.

20-30words: what was most challenging?
 It was my first experience to present to an audience something written by someone else, and being that it was a medical thesis, the contents were difficult to understand thoroughly.

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Academic meeting (Dr. K and Dr. O)

50-60 words: summarize
 Dr. K made a presentation about inducing beta-cells of the pancreas to grow in the liver. By this technology, it would be possible to secrete insulin from the liver. This innovative study is supposed to find a new way to help people with diabetes mellitus. After the presentation, students challenged the presenter with questions, just like an academic meeting in reality.

80-100 words: + opinion
 To make a good presentation would be challenge enough; answering questions form critical eyes are even more difficult. It would need a lot of devotion and practice for someone to be able to proudly present his research and be ready for any questions.

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Dr. MacKee

30-40 words: how he changed
 Dr. MacKee, a veteran surgeon, originally believed that a doctor should not get too much involved with his patients. After becoming a cancer patient himself, he switched his mind and became a care-giving doctor.

What treatment did Dr. Abbott first prescribe for Dr. MacKee?
Answer: radiation

Why did doctors not do an MRI earlier in June Ellis’s treatment-seeking process?
Answer: One main reason, insisted by June, is that the insurance company would have to pay $1000 if she gets an MRI. Another reason, suggested by Dr. MacKee, may be that the doctors simply failed to perform their role as they were supposed to.

30-40 words: Difference of medical insurance between US and Japan, and how it was an issue for June.
 In Japan, all citizens are gifted a basic medical insurance from the country. In the US, one would have to purchase medical insurance to get good medication. June was not rich enough to get appropriate treatment for her cancer.

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What kind of English skills would a doctor need?
Reading skills would come in handy if a doctor would want to perform EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) by gaining information from foreign sources. Listening and speaking skills would be helpful if he has to treat an English-speaking foreigner. Writing skills would be a must, if he would want to do some research and present it to the world.

What would you need to do to obtain these skills?
Practice makes perfect, especially in the frontline of battle, when the skills would be in urgent need. One should find the opportunity to confront such challenges, and should not be afraid to make mistakes. As for pronunciation, I strongly recommend the phonix method.

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Dr. H
(あくまでも試験対策用の簡便な考え方で、文法的云々はこの際無視)

α受容体のアドレナリンに対する結合定数
The binding constant (of) alpha-receptor (for) adrenaline
アドレナリンのα受容体に対する結合定数
The binding constant (of) adrenaline (for) alpha-receptor
必ず of → for の順番。また、日本語の順番と一緒。

同様に:
基質Sの酵素Eに対するミカエリス定数
The m value of 基質S for 酵素E

受容体とホルモンの間の結合定数
The binding constant between alpha-receptor and its ligand
これも、受容体→ホルモンのまんま、記述と英語の順番が一緒。

記号フォント
g 小文字通常:グラム
 小文字斜体:自由落下の標準加速度やg因子など
G 大文字通常:ガウス
 大文字斜体:ギブスエネルギーや重力定数など
 小文字斜体:ボルツマン定数、速度定数など
K 大文字正常:ケルビン(絶対温度の単位)
 大文字斜体:平衡定数など

A high-sugar — low-protein diet
highとsugar、lowとproteinはハイフン(一番短い)、その間をエンダッシュ(次に短い)が繋ぐ。
一文字として使う、使える場合はハイフン、同じ価値を持つ両者を繋ぐのがエンダッシュ。
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 01:52 * comments(0) * -

THE IDOLM@STER / 9.18

 This article is about the "9.18 genocide" that occured to THE IDOLM@STER community. The presentation by NAMCO BANDAI Games concerning their new THE IDOLM@STER game has brought numerous fans to anger and despair; therefore I felt the urge to inform English readers about this incident.
 Below is a revision of a draft I wrote for fans who wanted to send a protest mail to Microsoft Games, demanding that NAMCO BANDAI Games should alter what they were planning to make. I felt its contents were informal enough to explain about what has happened, thus I present it in my own weblog.
 Thank you for your attention.

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 NAMCO BANDAI Games is on the verge of ruining their XBOX360 megahit project "THE IDOLM@STER". The main concept of this title features female pop-idols, and the player becomes their "producer", managing their way to stardom.
 In their presentation for the new XBOX360 title "THE IDOLM@STER 2" in Tokyo Game Show 2010 (September 18th, 2010), it was announced 4 main characters to be demoted from producable (=playable) characters to sub-characters and placed 3 male characters in their stead.
 This announcement has outraged thousands ( http://www.shomei.tv/project-1606.html ) of fans, for the main concept of "THE IDOLM@STER" has been completely altered, neglecting what the fans have been expecting from the series. A big part of fans are feeling that they have been bereft of all hopes of the title, and are beginning to turn their backs on the whole project.
 This problem does not only involve a single game title, nor NAMCO BANDAI Games alone, but will also potentially affect the whole merchandise strategy for XBOX360 in Japan. "THE IDOLM@STER" series is also known to have one of the highest marks in the XBOX360 DLC sales (over 1 million downloads), and would probably continue to be so if the new title for the series should meet the needs for its fans.
 Therefore, the fans strongly propose, for the sake of Microsoft Games Japan, that NAMCO BANDAI Games should take a second thought for their course on producing this new title, that could otherwise still be a smash hit and promote the share for XBOX360 in the Japanese game market.
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 02:47 * comments(0) * -

About [Idolm@ster 2]

Let me express what happened to Idolm@ster 2nd Vision.

BGM: All shall fade

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Frodo : What's that song? The one you're singing.
Aragorn : It's a song from THE IDOLM@STER.
Frodo : What happened to it?
Aragorn : It got raped by its own creator.
     ...Get some sleep, Frodo.

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Frodo :
 Gandalf told me you were one of the Producer-sans.
Gollum :
 Cold be heart and hand and bone.
 Cold be gamers far from home.
Frodo :
 He said their lives were a sad story.
Gollum :
 They did not see what laid ahead,
 when Ryugu has faded and Online was dead.

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I can't believe IM@S 2nd vision will be successful.
Actually, I don't.
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 03:14 * comments(0) * -

Preparing for the exam 1

 Preparing for the exam, I summarised and made comments on all 9 classes in the "Medical English" course this semester. I have limited each summary below 60 words, and all comments below 40 words.
 The name of the lecturers are modified, but in the same order as their actual lectures.

1: Dr. H

Summary
 Dr. H’s lecture was mainly constructed on the semantics of English terms. A term may hold a wide range of meanings, and could cause confusion if the correct meaning is not chosen accordingly to the circumstance it is used. The meaning of terms may also vary according to the country it is used (such as “picnic”).

Comments
 Even native speakers may fumble over interpreting expressions that seem ambiguous. Translating such terms may cause mayhem. Therefore, it may be inadequate to completely believe what is written in a translated textbook. Perhaps students should use original texts.

2: Dr. A

Summary
 We took a petit test featuring medical English. The test included: 1) translating English medical terms into Japanese and vise versa, 2) listening to medical terms in English, 3) a TOEFL-like listening session, and 4) listening to medical presentations and guessing the speakers’ nationalities. As a conclusion, we don’t have to be perfect English speakers to understand medical English.

Comments
 It seems that many Japanese students fear to express themselves in front of an audience, especially when they have to do it in English. Listening to poorly pronounced English in medical presentations gives a sense that courage is the key.

3: Dr. N

Summary
 Dr. N, an expert of Neurosurgery with a beautiful “Queens English” pronunciation, introduced her life as a surgeon in Shizuoka Cancer Center. She especially emphasized on the importance of learning English throughout life as a medical doctor, and suggested we should obtain such behavior, think the right way and make studying English a habit.

Comments
 Personally, I do not think that English is that much necessary in all Japanese medical culture, as Dr. Nakasu has described. Medical doctors working in small hospitals or personal clinics do not need such effort in studying English.

4. Dr. T

Summary
 Dr. T brought up two topics: 1) the world of sports science, and 2) anti-smoking act. The two topics had a similarity in how the attitude and commitment of one could lead to success, whether in the career as an athlete, or to quit smoking. Such attitude and commitment could also lead to success in learning English.

Comments
 It was amazing how medical science help world-class athletes, whether in perfection of skills or rehabilitation from injuries. Dr. Takahashi emphasized on mental factors, but I think technology also shares a large role in sports science.

5. Dr. A

Summary
 Dr. A talked about his experience in NYU, and described his amazing commitment and attitude towards medical science and perfection of his skill as a specialist in cardiovascular surgery. Life in NYU is hard put, and seems extremely challenging, but Dr. A insisted on what one could gain out of such experience in advanced environments.

Comments
 The way Dr. A presented us with his beliefs was moving and convincing, and therefore, there is no wonder he gained so much respect from the audience. He showed the best example of a devout medical doctor.

6. Dr. S

Summary
 Dr. S, though he does not speak fluent English, demonstrated how we could comprehend scientific papers without necessarily obtaining the best English skills. He introduced the basic structure of a medical thesis, and argued that understanding the basic structure and acquiring reading techniques should be enough to be able to use them for one’s benefit as a medical doctor.

Comments
 I agree to Dr. S’s assertion that all we need to understand a medical thesis are some techniques and basic knowledge on medical terms. In fact, without them, comprehending a scientific paper is difficult even for a native English speaker.

7. Dr. W and Dr. N

Summary
 What appeared to be a lecture on forensics, ended up being an introduction of medical education in Germany. The curriculum is quite different compared to what we have here in Japan. To obtain the title “Medical Doctor” requires additional research and a dissertation; without that, medical students could only become a physician.

Comments
 Dr. W is a German-Japanese, and was brought up in Japan all her life before she went abroad to study medical science. It is amazing how she was able to adjust to an all-German-speaking environment.

8. Dr. H

Summary
 Dr. H introduced how he fared in Germany, and boasted that he often flew all over the world to attend medical conferences, but in the end grudged the fact he ended up nailed down in SUMS now busying over his work as vice-president. He also introduced a summary on the discovery of Helicobacter Pylori causing stomach ulcers.

Comments
 The summary on Helicobacter Pylori illustrated two Australian researchers that actually swallowed the bacteria to prove their theory. It is amazing that scientists who make great achievements may take big risks to themselves for the sake of scientific discovery.

9. Dr. O

Summary
 It seemed like the usual pharmacology class, but in English. We were made to answer English questions concerning what we have learned this semester, therefore it was more like a review session of pharmacology than a class of medical English. However, Dr. O did insist on learning medical terms in English, as other lecturers did in this course.

Comments
 With the pharmacology exam coming soon, this class gave me the chills, realizing that I did not study enough yet. I hope I could pass the exam, and get rid of all the agony studying this difficult course.
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 02:19 * comments(0) * -

The "Ryojyoku" Crisis

 It seems to me that womens' lib extremists possess a fetish obsession of discriminating even the mere imagination of sex-gender abuse, especially against women. True, there is no doubt that sex-gender abuse itself (no matter what sex) should be banned from the real world, but when it comes to the point where just fantasizing about it on non-existing characters are to be accused, I feel that they are pushing the limits a little too far, and is now beginning to violate and even oppress the freedom of expression.
 That's what's happening to the "Ryojyoku" porn-games in Japan.
 The "Ryojyoku" genre in general feature imaginary feminine characters being heavily abused. Violence and humiliation may be pointed out as the key factors; raping imaginary pregnant women, using drugs or enigmatic sorcery that multiply sexual desire or knock-out the target characters' sanity, summoning tentacle-like creatures that live on female body-secretions, and even mutilation of the body, etc... you name any violent and humiliating (and usually unrealistic) sexual fantasy and perversions, you may find them in at least some of the games.
 Horrific.
 Well, however horrific though they seem, they're not real. The characters don't exist in the real world. The target is not even female, however feminine they may seem. Also, usually these games warn you that the contents performed in the game are fiction and if it should happen in the real world, it will become a heavy violation of the law. No games justify sexual abuse, but merely provide fantasy that may entertain people who posess such sexual interests and needs, only within the computer screen. There is an absolute distinction between fantasy and the real world that gender extremists have to recognize; nobody is acutually physically abused in the real world by these games. There is no true victim.
 There comes the issue whether or not these games nurture the idea of sexual abuse and promote social sex-discrimination. Some even claim the existance of such sex violence games become the reason for increase in sexual violence in the real world.
 So, you think what you watch, and you are what you eat, eh?
 If that is true, then most Hollywood action pictures should be banned, for everyone who watch them may turn into serial killers.
 I think that's nonsense.
 In fact, the percent of rape per population in Japan is far lower than US or UK. This goes the same with child abuse, by the way.
 I won't go so far as to say that hentai-lolita contents reduce sexual violence, but at least I think I could say that these imaginary contents have nothing to do with rape and abuse in the acutal world. I feel it important for people to distinguish between fantasy and reality; not only for game-fans, but also people who act against them.
 To make sure, I personally don't really dig into this "Ryojyoku" stuff. I actually think some of them are kind-of too gross and disgusting.
 However, I do understand that some people may have these sorts of fetish desires, and it is almost hopeless to stop someone from being obsessed with such mental urge. It is part of the personality, one may say.
 For example: natural-born extreme sadists. If some of their desires go as far as sexual abuse, it may be a wise choice for them not to perform them for real, but be content with such games.
 Another example: men or boys who were traumaticaly abused by women or girls, especially some of those who seek "revenge". Luckily I was never "abused", but was once continuously tormented and injured by a group of neighbor elementary-school girls for a period of time when I was in kindergarten. When that sort of trauma gets too deep, it may sometimes even lead to manslaughter. I remember when I was in highschool, trying hard to restrain my fist from flying into her face when my female cram-school teacher came down hard at me (it was my fault), and the bitter memory from my younger days instantly and helplessly flashed back into my mind, agitating enormous hate and malice even to the point of the urge to murder; I have to thank god that by then my conscience have grown and prevailed against the murder urge... I only barely succeeded, though failed to restrain my tears rolling down from utter confusion of mind, I remember that was so embarassing in front of all classmates.
 When I was little, the idea of "feminine" was equivalent to reckless and violent terror which can cunningly overpower any man by their merciless tricks and traps, and therefore all women were my arch-enemy that I had to somehow struggle against. I seem to have overcome that trauma as I grew up, and is now perfectly fine with women as long as they're decent, but I still feel uneasy when I see women behave rudely or yell at others, and I remember throughout my childhood days when I used to fantasize a powerful fantasy female magic-warrier being cruelly beaten down by some evil necromancer and becoming enslaved. It gave me a laugh when I found more than one "Ryojoku" games doing just that, though I didn't like any of their plots; that's queer, but perhaps it's just simply because that I haven't found the right game for me.
 With such experience, I think I could understand how someone would want to seek "revenge" on an idea of a certain gender, and also is able to say that fantasizing may ease such enmity or such psychological pain; and for some, "Ryojyoku" games do act as perfect and comfortable anesthesia against rash actions in reality. Therefore, I do think the "Ryojyoku" genre should be left alone as a minority.
 Of course, they have been a minority all the time.
 I strongly believe the locus of this problem should be pinned down to screening and censorship, and more important, social care and education concerning media literacy and gender issues.
 I do agree that these stuff should not be put into public view too openly, and the fact that Amazon had some of these games for sale on such domain that could be viewed by anyone, is an outrage. There has to be a way to confirm the viewers' age, and also, they should warn people before entering such web-pages.
 That much said, one last question from me.
 In most of the developed nations, why is it that violent man-killing contents are accepted as all-age entertainment, and sexual contents are not? I know murder and sexual abuse are incomparable and distinct concepts, but still, I can't help asking : isn't murder the worst violation of human rights?
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 00:08 * comments(0) * -

The Definition of Words

 When I heard someone say in the CNN news, "Democracy means different things to different people", it reminded me of my beloved "Prof. AM", my chief adviser-professor for my Master's Thesis.
 He was a German-American, directing various workshops in fields of study concerning ethics, liberation acts, argumentation, and culture.
 He said to me, "words mean different things to different people".
 Though he defines himself as a fundamentalist, the impact he made on my life made me turn to a relativist mindset; relativist in a different context to what he define as being ignorant, creating walls between "us" and "them", the mindset allowing "you to do what you do, as long as you don't interfere with us doing what we do, because we come from different cultures". My way of relativism, is a strong rejection to absolutist perspectives that emerge from ignorance and misdirected assumptions, ones that might ironically come from such unthoughtful and uneducated relativism.
 Sure, you may proclaim values of someone else right or wrong with your own mindset from your cultural background, but I insist, "not before you understand the reason and the cultural background for such values". I don't say that we should remain ignorant and leave each another alone, but I demand we should try our best to look at the world through each other's eyes (or brains, whatsoever) first, and then make any move. It's bad to create walls between "us" and "them", but it's altogether worse and even disastrous to crack down the jury's hammer just because it doesn't go along well with your cultural background, before you understand anything about what's going on in the other side of the wall. This is why I keep on saying, "don't be too hasty on deciding whether something is right or wrong".
 I may be too optimistic and unrealistic, but I hope someoneday, people would start realizing that there is no need to create walls in the first place, if we could stand in each other's perspectives, and share our views. There is no need of a curtain to blur our sight, if we could understand, negotiate, and forgive. The only condition I rest my case and go ahead to slap the other in the face, is when I feel that I have given enough effort to gain maximum understanding of the other's reason and background, and still decide (or feel the urge) to teach the other a lesson. However, you still have to be prepared to realize that maybe it's you who need the spanking. You always have to be ready for corrections.
 This, is what I define a relativist, or a relativist attitude.
 Now, back to the phrase "words mean different things to different people".
 Back when I was in the Master's program, it was really a shock to hear such statement from an American, or in English, even.
 I had this false assumption, that because English is more mechanical and uses direct expressions compared to the ambiguous Japanese way of speech, English speakers were more strict in the definition of words.
 Therefore, his statement was a humongous eye-opener for me.
 True, my Buddhist background gave me insight and understanding to how people may think and act differently from various backgrounds, and there should be a variety of reasons behind every statements and actions made by various people, but that was something I picked up from bits and pieces of experience through continuous chanting of sutras and reading Buddhist scriptures, growing up as a participant in a Buddhist community. However, as a solid statement, "words hold a wide range of values, and it means differently to different people", it was an American who hit the bull's eye mark for the first time in my life. More, it was stated not in Japanese or Mandarin or Taiwanese, but in English! What an irony of my lifetime!
 Throughout my life, it was the Japanese and Chinese and Taiwanese who were picky on "the definition of words", assuming that there's only one definition for any word or expression. Only a few would nod when I say that words hold a variety of meanings. Even educated people would go on saying, "this is how I define this word, and if your definition is different from mine, it's either you're wrong or I am (usually it's the other)". I hope the people I met were the minority, and most people would understand that a word could change meanings and still be "correct" or their definitions be "valid".
 It's interesting to think when someone with the ambiguous Japanese way of speech may want to be so precise with definitions of words, whereas it is someone with a straight-forward English way of speech who teaches that words may change meanings according to who, when, and where (this is not a generalization on "all" Japanese or English speakers, just to make sure).
 This is the reason why I furthermore feel that one should obtain the relativist point of view, realizing how someone else may use a word differently than how you would use it, and make effort to understand the other's true intent during speech or actions, before making any move.
 Next time if you feel someone is "talking funny", that someone "doesn't make sense", maybe it's time you ask the reason of such difference, define the words in the other's point of view, before you decide any statement is right or wrong.
 Perhaps a statement you think it was opposing your thoughts, may turn out being a full support for you, only that it was spoken with words in a different definition of yours. You'll never know.

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chief adviser-professor for my Master's Thesis:修士論文の主査
fundamentalist:原理主義者
relativist/relativism:相対主義者/相対主義
absolutist/absolutism:絶対主義者/絶対主義
someoneday:ある日(somedayが正しい。この表現はジョン・レノンの歌から)
Master's program:修士課程
Buddhist:佛教徒
Mandarin:北京語(=中国語/中国における「普通話」)
humongous:ドデカい(俗語)
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 21:11 * comments(0) * -

Don't Be Too Hasty

 I loathe people being too hasty in making conclusions. Some people only look at a portion and think they have perceived the whole picture. If they would but just wait and see, and clearer visions would appear, giving a much wider range of sight for people to behold.
 Giving hasty conclusions are the first steps to ignorance.
 For example, people tend to take only a glance at someone else, or some group of people that they (believe) are not related to, and thinking that they have seen much, would "shut their channel" against the other, shunning any alternative perspectives, denying further communication, and abandoning any efforts for mutual understaning.
 It is so easy for people to oversimplify in conceptions of each other, and think in terms of "us and them", thus the process of "othering" takes place. This is how kinsfolk become estranged, friends become foes, and foes become even more bitter and deadly foes, for "othering" brings ignorance, and ignorance leads to fear, and fear nurturs further ignorance, even to the degree of unjust resentment and hatred.
 The worst comes when someone is hasty in conclusion and at the same time stubborn, clinging to what he believes and refuses to take a second thought, not to mention change his mind. When someone else comes to pick out his mistaken perceptions, he would simply shut his ear, or turn the other way, as if the realization of his mistakes would break his ego. People who try to avoid direct arguments, or try to alter the course of discussion when the tide turns against him, tends to be one of this kind.
 I am one among them.
 The more I feel myself making hasty conclusions, the more I should feel ashamed, and repent such act of ignorance.
 Hasty people should take more time in watching, listening, letting thing be as they are, for quick temper and rashly woven words do only damage to things which otherwise may have turned towards a better course.
 At least, it is not for anyone to foretell if something is in the end good or evil; they may guess it, and logically construct predictions about it, but it is always up to time for the revealation of truth.
 This is the way relativists percieve the world, believeing that there is no absolute good or evil, for these things vary according to the perspective of the observer.
チャンプ(−O−) * English Articles * 19:06 * comments(0) * trackbacks(0)

Range of Expression

 Since I felt a sudden urge to jot down my thoughts and feelings in English, I have decided to set this new category called "English Articles" in my weblog. I wonder who in the world will come to read them, since all articles were made in Japanese until now, and I doubt if anyone would care to read in English, save some who might have learned the language to some extent, and have enough time and curiosity. Even so, I would still proceed in my will, just for my own sake. I don't recommend anyone to spend their spare time or energy to read my rubbish anyways, as I have been stating time after time in this weblog.
 Language and culture form the basis of different mind sets, and I was brought up provided with three to four different linguistic backgrounds and various cultural backgrounds. Many consider this as a heavenly gift, but for me, it sometimes become a burden, for multiple mind-sets each linking to the different languages I use often contradict each other, whence at times results in painful experiences.
 For example, when I discuss one matter in English, the conclusions would tend to be different when I do so in Japanese. This almost cracked my brain when I had to compose my Masters thesis in English, and perform the oral defence in Japanese, for I found many parts in my English thesis not making any sense when I translated it into Japanese, and when I got it straight in Japanese, it was even more difficult to translate it back. Being a native speaker in both languages only make this matter worse, for otherwise, one would just have to think in one language, and translate it to the other, taking no heed to how it actually sounds in the other language; all would seem adequate if the grammar is straight.(1) I think in English when I use English, and I think in Japanese when I use Japanese, and while others marvel at this ability, this is the factor that prevents me from making quick translations when in need. An English term may cover multiple Japanese terms within its semantic range and does not always find a bull's-eye mark, and always vise versa, thus finding the "right word" may take forever; in fact, there is no "right word" to almost any term between any various languages.
 Indeed, I have things in mind that I find difficult to express in Japanese. Now I feel inclined to "fill-in the hole"(2), in hope to widen the range of expression within this weblog.
 Still, and again, I always regard my articles rubbish, with no benefit for any readers' eyes, and recommend not to be too serious with them. I always feel so surprised when I see the access counter every day; the numbers are just unbelievable, too much for such a personal weblog, and is always thankful that there are so many who care so much. However, right from the beginning I have been writing for noone save myself, and I hereby make clear again that these articles are made for the sake of noone; even if they have characteristics to the likeness of an self-ethnography within the Otaku culture of Japan, they're nothing more than a product out from my leisure.

問題
1.下線部(1)を和訳せよ。(20点)
2.下線部(2)の"fill-in the hole"とはどういうことか、
  その内容を30字以内で記せ。(20点)
3.上記の文を踏まえ、思うところを800字以内で述べよ。
  ただし文中に{言語、文化、翻訳、解釈}の4文字を含めること。(60点)
4.上記の英文を添削し、文法的な間違いをその理由とともに指摘せよ。
  (一箇所ごとに5点、他の試験の点数に加算する)
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